Afghanistan. According to Countryaah official site, foreign governments with soldiers in
Afghanistan talked more and more specifically about troop
retrieval before the planned total retreat in 2014. During
the year, the United States began to reduce its force by
10,000 men and President Barack Obama promised that the
30,000 sent as reinforcements in 2009 would return home in
the summer of 2012. Sweden prepared a reduced effort in 2012
with the goal of having only 200 people left without
conflicting information from 2014. Canada took home its last
3,000 men in July. During the year, Afghan associations
began to take responsibility for security in a number of
provinces and major cities.
While the country's allies began planning for their troop
retreat, they pledged to continue assisting Afghanistan for
at least ten years from 2014. At a conference in Bonn in
December, President Hamid Karzai promised in return that he
would step up efforts against corruption, strengthen the
rule of law and improve population protection.
At the same time, it was obvious that conditions in the
country were rapidly deteriorating. It was not only the
Taliban who became increasingly daring in their attacks.
Now, attention has been increasingly focused on the Haqqani
network, a militia that was supported by the United States
during the war against the Soviet Union in the 1980s, but
which is now close to the Taliban and al-Qaeda.
The United States accused the Haqqani network of being
behind both an attack on a major hotel in Kabul in July and
an almost 24-hour attack in September against the US embassy
and NATO headquarters in the capital. In both cases, dozens
of people were killed. Among other US Defense Forces Mike
Mullen claimed that the Pakistani military intelligence
service ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence) was also involved
in the embassy attack. At the same time, high-ranking US
officials confirmed that there were contacts with both the
Taliban and the Haqqani network.
In July, President Karzai's brother Ahmed Wali Karzai was
murdered in his home in Qandahar. Shortly thereafter, the
mayor of the city was shot dead and a few months earlier
Qandahar's police chief. In July, one of the president's
closest advisers was also murdered and in September former
President Burhanuddin Rabbani was killed during an
exploratory peace meeting with the Taliban. The interior
minister escaped an assassination with his life in October.
In August, the United States was hit by its worst
individual hardship during the war when a helicopter was
shot down and 31 soldiers were killed. Shortly thereafter,
the British Council cultural institution in Kabul was
attacked by a suicide bomber. A traditional council bill,
Loya Jirga, which gathered in Kabul in November, supported
President Karzai's ambitions to seek a ten-year "strategic
partnership" with the United States after 2014. But the
meeting's demand for cooperation should be entirely on the
Afghan's terms is going to be difficult for the United
States to join.
During the year also came several reports from the UN and
human rights organizations, such as Oxfam and Human Rights
Watch, about Afghan security forces' assault on civilians
and the incidence of torture in Afghan prisons and
detention. In the first three quarters of the year,
according to the UN, the number of acts of violence in
Afghanistan increased by 39% compared to the same period in
2010. And it was the civilians who suffered the most. At the
beginning of 2010, the organization Afghanistan Rights
Monitor summed it up as the worst for the civilian
population and in July the UN found that the number of
civilians killed had increased by 15%, to 1,462, in the
first half of the year compared to the same period in 2010.
Opium production, which largely funds the resistance
movements, increased sharply again after a decline in 2010
caused by a plant disease. First and foremost, it was said
to be prices that increased opium cultivation by 61%.
Domestic politics also sharpened the contradictions.
President Karzai was forced in August to dissolve the
disputed special tribunal he created to deal with
controversies surrounding the 2010 parliamentary elections.
At that time, Parliament had refused to approve the
Tribunal's decision that 62 newly elected members should be
excluded because of electoral fraud. When the Independent
Electoral Commission regained the right to decide the issues
of dispute, it rejected the nine members' incursion, but
neither did Parliament want to accept it.
A more organized resistance to Karzai began to emerge at
the end of the year when two new parties with a number of
well-known members among the members were formed.