The attempt by the Allies and Greece to divide the country after World War I, led to the Turkish War of Independence, led by Mustafa Kemal. The 29 of October of 1923 the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed; in 1924 the religious courts were abolished and in 1934 women won the right to vote.
Multi-partyism began in 1946, when the newly founded Democratic Party won 62 seats in Parliament in coalition with the Republican Party.
In 1950, the Democratic Party won the elections. Later, the tensions between the parties caused a crisis that led to the control of power by a military junta that ruled from 1960 to 1961, the year in which a new Constitution was adopted and general elections were held that resulted in the creation of a coalition government. After a period of economic uncertainty and political violence in the 1970s, a second military junta was established in 1980, imposing martial law that outlawed the activity of all political parties. The new Constitution, approved after a popular referendum in 1982, was promulgated on November 7 of that year (later, it would be amended in 1987, 1995, 2003 and 2004). At the end of 1983 the civil government was restored.
From 1980 to 1983 executive power fell to the National Security Council, led by General Kenan Evren. With the ratification of the 1982 Constitution, Evren became President of the Republic; the Security Council, which was made up of high-ranking military personnel, acted until its dissolution in 1989 as the Presidential Council.
The 1982 Constitution, amended several times to make it more democratic, indicates that legislative power resides in the Grand National Assembly (or Meclis), a unicameral body of 550 members democratically elected for five-year terms. The head of government is the prime minister who must have a parliamentary majority. The president, as head of state, is elected by the Grand National Assembly for a period of seven years. All citizens over the age of 21 have the right to vote.
Power of attorney
Under the 1982 Constitution, the Constitutional Court reviews the legality of laws passed by Parliament. The Court of Cassation is the court of last resort, although there are many other civil and military courts.
Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (il; plural, iller), administered by governors (vali) on behalf of the central government. The provinces are, in turn, divided into districts and communes or municipalities that can establish taxes and exercise other local initiatives.
Above the provinces, although with a strictly geographical character and without administrative capacity, there are 8 regions: Thrace (Trakya), Black Sea Coast (Karadeniz Kiyisi), Marmara and Aegean Coast (Marmara ve Ege Kiyilari), Mediterranean Coast (Akdeniz Kiyisi), Western Anatolia (Bati Anadolu), Central Anatolia (Iç Anadolu), Southeastern Anatolia (Güneydoðu Anadolu) and Eastern Anatolia (Doðu Anadolu).
All political parties were dissolved after the 1980 coup, and the leaders of the main parties were removed from their posts for a minimum of ten years. Among the organizations that were formed to participate in the 1983 elections were the Nationalist Movement Party, the Republican People’s Party and the Motherland Party, which obtained a parliamentary majority in the 1983 and 1987 elections.
In the elections held in December 1995, the parties that won seats in the Meclis, in order of importance, were the Islamist-oriented Welfare Party (Refah Partisi, RP), the Recta Vía Party (Dogru Yol Partisi, DYP), conservative, like the Motherland Party (Anavatan Partisi, ANAP), the social democrats of the Democratic Left Party (Demokratik Sol Partisi, DSP) and the People’s Republican Party (CHP), the centrist Democratic Party of Turkey (Demokratik Türkiye Partisi, DTP) and the far-right Great Unity Party (BBP). After the legislative elections of November 2002 the large traditional parties were left out of Parliament, in which the Justice and Development Party, a moderate Islamist party, won an absolute majority. Other prominent, albeit illegal, groups are the People’s Democracy Party and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK).
Health and social welfare
According to payhelpcenter, the government finances public healthcare for all those who cannot afford their healthcare. Turkey has one doctor for every 641 residents (2006 data); However, while in urban areas 96% of the population has access to health services, in rural areas only 72% have it.
In 2004 the Turkish Armed Forces consisted of 514,850 men, of whom about 30,000 were assigned to control the Turkish part of Cyprus. Military service is fifteen months.
Turkey is a member of the United Nations (UN) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in addition to being a candidate country of the European Union (EU).