The southern territory of Malawi, especially along the Shire emissary, seems to have been visited several times since 1624 by Portuguese explorers; Especially famous is the Lacerda expedition in 1798. From around 1830 onwards. the upper Zambezi and the region around Niassa were subject to the invasion of the Zulu tribes and those pushed north. The Makololos settled on the Zambezi around Tete, while the Ngoni settled to the east of the lake. In 1859 Livingstone he traveled through the region where, after his death (1873), the Scottish Church founded a mission to honor his memory, so that, from 1875, missionaries and traders settled on the Niassa. In 1878 a company was formed (The African Lakes Company Limited) and in 1883 an English consul was sent to Blantyre. The area, claimed by Portugal, was the cause of friction, especially during the Makololo revolt (1889) which the London government claimed to be under British protection. After the British ultimatum in Lisbon on 11 January 1890, the question was resolved in favor of London with the Treaty of 11 June 1891. On 14 May 1891, the British protectorate of Central Africa was proclaimed, which in 1907 became the protectorate of Nyasaland. In 1953 London promoted the creation of a Federation of Roy Welensky. Beginning in 1959 Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia claimed self-government in the federation. The victory of Hastings Kamuzu Banda ‘s MCP (Malawi Congress Party)in September 1961 he gave Nyasaland self-government. Under the joint pressure of Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia, the federation was dissolved on 31 December 1963 and on 1 July 1964, with the new name of Malawi, the territory became an independent state and on 6 July 1966 a republic. Then began the long Banda regime which in 1971 made himself elected president for life. During the eighties of the twentieth century the late age of Banda favored the unleashing of a no holds barred struggle for the succession, in the course of which the president had the designated dolphin, Dick Matenje (1983) eliminated and proved to be so strong that to be able to take direct control of the twelve ministries of his government (1984) and radically reorganize the single party, the MCP. On the international level, Samora Machel, and indeed Malawi managed to establish cordial relations with his successor J. Chissano. However, the growing intolerance towards a despotic regime activated a lively opposition that Banda fiercely repressed by dissolving the Legislative Assembly (1992). The suspension of aid from the international community forced the elderly president to promise a referendum on multi-partyism: it was held in June 1993 and decreed the victory of the opposition. A transition process began with the establishment of a National Executive Council and the abolition of the lifetime presidency of Banda which paved the way for presidential consultations, won by the leader of the United Democratic Front (UDF), Bakili Muluzi, and to the election of a new National Assembly (May 1994). Visit cachedhealth.com for Malawi travel package.
The oppositions, articulated in the UDF and in the Alliance for Democracy, they formed a coalition government by relegating the old Banda Malawi Congress Party to the fringes of political life. The dismantling of the previous apparatus of power also led to the indictment (January 1995) of the elderly former president on the charge (subsequently dropped) of having ordered the murder of some of his political opponents in 1993. The presidential elections of 1999 confirmed Bakili Muluzi as the leader of the country. The 2004 presidential elections were won by Bingu wa Mutharika, candidate of the outgoing president; reconfirmed in the 2009 presidential elections, he died of a heart attack in 2012. The following presidential elections were won by Peter Mutharika.
Independent since 1964, Malawi is a multi-party democratic republic. On the basis of the provisional Constitution promulgated in May 1994, the President of the Republic, who is also the head of the government, is elected by direct suffrage for 5 years, like the deputies of the National Assembly who are entrusted with legislative power. The judicial system is based on the Common Law English and local customs. Justice is administered, in its highest degree, by the Supreme Court, subsequently we find the High Court, competent in civil and criminal matters, and the courts of first instance, which act as Courts of Magistrates. The death penalty is in force, but executions have not taken place since 1992. The armed forces, divided into three traditional weapons, are joined by paramilitary forces and the national police force. The school structure is affected by the English-style organization. In 1994 the government launched a plan for the development of schools and for the reduction of the illiteracy rate (which stood at around 28.2% in 2007). Primary education is compulsory and lasts 8 years; the secondary one is divided into two biennial cycles. Great impetus was given by the new state to technical and professional training and agricultural teaching. Higher education is given in numerous universities including: the University of Malawi based in Blantyre and Zomba, the University of Mzuzu at Mzuzu, the Malawi Polytechnic at Blantyre and the Zomba Theological College at Zomba.