According to educationvv, Colombia is the 26th largest country in the world and the fourth in South America, covering 1,141,748 km².
Located in the extreme north-west of the South American territory, it is bordered on the east by Venezuela and Brazil, on the south by Ecuador and Peru, on the north by the Caribbean Sea (Atlantic Ocean), on the northwest by Panama, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.. Geologically, Colombia is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire that makes the region prone to earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions because it is positioned at the convergence of the Nazca, Caribbean and South American plates.
These plates form two large territorial zones in Colombia; one submerged in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea covering an approximate area of 828,660 km² and a second formed by the Andes mountains and the eastern plains that it shares with Venezuela, covering approximately 1,143,748 km².
The extreme geographical points of Colombia are: to the north Punta Gallinas in the Guajira peninsula, latitude 12 ° 26 ’46 “North; to the south in the mouths of the San Antonio stream in the Amazon Trapezoid, latitude 4 ° 12′ 30” South; to the east with the Island of San José in the Negro river in front of Piedra del Cocuy, longitude 66 ° 50 ’54 “West; to the west Cabo Manglares in the department of Nariño, longitude 79 ° 02′ 33” West. The highest point in the country is the Pico Cristóbal Colón (5,775 masl) in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta that is segregated from the mountain ranges like the Serranía de Macuira in the Guajira peninsula, forming part of different biomes such as the xeric scrub of Barranquilla and Guajira, the mountainous forests of Santa Marta and the dry forests of the Sinú Valley.
In the world, Colombia is one of the countries with the greatest water resources, rivers, streams and water sources, it is also the main water source on the planet, in whose territory there are five large hydrographic springs, named after the place where they flow: Caribbean, Orinoco, Amazon, Pacific and Catatumbo, the latter formed by the rivers that pour their waters into Lake Maracaibo.
Its main rivers are the Caquetá, Magdalena, Cauca and Atrato; the last three have the peculiarity in South America of going from south to north, and the last of these is one of the largest in the world in relation to its length.
The climate in Colombia varies from extreme cold in the snowy mountains to the warmest ones at sea level; with two dry seasons and two rainy seasons due to the influence of the trade winds and the intertropical convergence zone, which are in turn influenced by the effects of El Niño and La Niña.
During the month of April there are effects of wind and humidity producing two periods of intense rain (called Winter) and another two of drought or sporadic rains, (called Summer). This phenomenon does not occur in the center of the country where there is only one summer period.
The temperature is relatively uniform most of the year, being determined by different factors such as rainfall, intensity, solar radiation, wind systems, altitude, continentality and atmospheric humidity, which develop a mosaic of climates and microclimates:
- Savanna-type climate: characterized by a dry and a rainy season, in Orinoquía, Bolívar, northern Huila and central Valle del Cauca.
- Super-humid jungle climate: with abundant precipitation and little variation in temperature in the Pacific region. Amazon and Magdalena and Catatumbo river basins
- Humid rainy climate: with less rainfall and high variation in temperatures, in Caquetá, Vaupés, part of Antioquia and Córdoba. And arid climate in the Tatacoa desert.
Some climatic phenomena that occur are electrical storms and floods, tornadoes and strong winds in the Caribbean region, especially in the vicinity of the department of Atlántico.
Waterspouts occur, both in the Pacific and the Caribbean, as well as the phenomenon of the swell caused by ocean currents, trade winds and the interaction of the Earth with the moon.
The regions of La Guajira and the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina are prone to the Atlantic hurricane season. In rainy seasons, temperatures can contribute to frost in mountainous areas. The result of volcanic eruptions also affect neighboring areas to the volcanoes of Colombia as well as natural or caused fires.
Fauna and Flora
Colombia has a large number of taxonomic groups in typical fauna and flora of the equatorial zone in which it is found, to which are added varieties of fauna migrations from different parts of the planet.
Colombia is one of the megadiverse countries in biodiversity, ranking third in living species and second in bird species. In terms of flora, the country has between 40,000 and 45,000 species of plants, which is equivalent to 10 or 20% of the total species worldwide, considered very high for a country of intermediate size.
The national bird is the Condor de los Andes (which can be seen on the shield); the Cattleya trianae orchid is the national flower of Colombia and the Quindio wax palm is the national tree.