Tanzania. Virtually the entire leadership of the ruling
Revolutionary Party (CCM) was replaced in April. The only
one left was the President, President Jakaya Kikwete.
Although the party won big in the last election in 2010, it
declined significantly in terms of mandate. The record low
turnout, only 42%, also indicated a fatigue among voters,
which the CCM leadership interpreted as having confidence in
the party having been cut to the edge.
Countryaah official site, the confidence in the police was also not so great after
several hard-fought interventions. According to the
country's leading human rights group, the Legal and Human
Rights Center, the police shot dead 20 people in the first
half alone. Five deaths occurred during a clash in a gold
mine and three during a demonstration organized by an
opposition party in the city of Arusha. The Tanzanian Law
Society also accused the police of excessive violence in
connection with the shootings against the protesters.
All wildlife exports were halted until further notice
when it was discovered that about 130 animals, including
four giraffes, had been smuggled out of the country with an
aircraft registered in Qatar. Prior to that, President
Kikwete had announced that army units would be deployed in
the wilds to stop poachers. The President called on
Parliament to tighten the penalty for poaching. Up to a year
in prison and a few hundred dollars in fines does not deter
anyone from killing an elephant or rhino, Kikwete said.
Tanzania's foreign policy
From independence, Tanzania maintained a high foreign
policy profile and was a leading player both regionally, in
Africa and in the alliance-free movement. In the fight
against Portuguese colonialism in Angola and Mozambique and
against apartheid in Rhodesia and South Africa, Tanzania and
President Nyerere played an important role. Several
liberation movements were held in Tanzania, also militarily,
and the country opened the border to refugees from many
countries. In 1976, Tanzania sent troops to Mozambique in
support of the country's government against Rhodesian
attacks. The same thing happened during the civil war in the
1980s, and Tanzania also sent soldiers to support the
government of the Seychelles. In 1979, Tanzanian forces
invaded Uganda and deposed President Idi Amin. The war was
provoked by Amin and came after several border crossings
between the two countries. Ugandan exile politicians had
built up a resistance front in Tanzania and participated in
the invasion. 1993–95, Tanzania had troops in Liberia to
reinforce the West African peacekeeping force there.
Tanzania is among the African states that, for decades, have
received the most refugees, not least from Burundi and
Rwanda. President Nyerere acted as mediator in the Burundi
conflict from 1996 until his death in 1999.
In the first years of independence, there was extensive
cooperation between the East African states of Kenya,
Tanzania and Uganda in the East African Community (EAC),
which was dissolved in 1977 following political
disagreement. For a time, Tanzania had a strained
relationship with both Kenya and Uganda, partly with closed
borders. Neighboring conditions improved in the 1990s, and
in 2000, the EAC was restored with headquarters in Arusha,
Tanzania. A trade union under the EAC entered into force in
2005, and several regional institutions were established.
John Magufuli, President of Tanzania, is EAC Chairman. In
2000, Tanzania withdrew from the Common Market for Eastern
and Southern Africa (COMESA), but remained a member of the
Southern African Cooperation Organization (SADC).