Sudan. According to
Countryaah official site, the year was completely dominated by Sudan's split
in July, when the southern part of the country declared
itself independent. It was one of the most profound
political changes in Africa's post-colonial history.
Although the South Sudanese referendum on independence in
January could be carried out in orderly forms, it was not at
all obvious that the division would take place peacefully.
For the border area Abyei, preliminarily located in the
north, the affiliation remained unclear as the north and
south could not agree on the border crossing. The period
between the referendum and the outbreak of South Sudan was
marked by increased violence in Abyei, first at the local
level between the misseriya and ngoginka ethnic groups with
ethnic and political ties north and south respectively. In
March, increased troop contractions were reported in the
area, mainly from the north side. In April, President Omar
Hassan al-Bashir threatened not to recognize the impending
neighboring country if its government claimed Abyei. At the
end of May, regular Sudanese forces entered the area and
expelled soldiers from the south. Extensive destruction was
reported and strong protests came from the outside world.
According to data from South Sudan, 150,000 civilians were
Shortly before South Sudan's independence in July, both
sides dampened the tone. They agreed to resume negotiations
on the entire border, Abyei's future and the distribution of
oil income and foreign debt after the country's division.
When South Sudan celebrated its independence, President
al-Bashir was one of the guests of honor in the new capital
During the year there were also fighting in the oil-rich
state of South Kurdufan. Following local elections in May,
when the regime-loyal governor was re-elected, the conflict
between the government side and armed allies from the South
Sudanese ruling party SPLM's (Sudanese people's liberation
movement) northern branch intensified. The UN estimated that
60,000 civilians were forced to flee in June and the regime
threatened to defeat resistance by all means. A UN report
described the regime's persecution of the area's Nuba
population as so systematic that it was likely to speak of
war crimes and crimes against humanity.
In September, fighting in the nearby Blue Nile broke out
between army forces and troops loyal to the state governor,
who was elected in 2010 and belongs to the SPLM-North. The
governor was dismissed by the government, the state of
emergency was announced and the state placed under military
administration. After the SPLM-North declared armed struggle
against the regime and appealed for international support,
the party was declared illegal, its offices closed
throughout the country and mass arrests of members reported.
The fighting continued during the fall and the regime
deployed bombers against the rebels. At a boom in southern
Sudanese soil in November, at least twelve people were
reported killed when a refugee camp was attacked. The US
condemned the bombing as a provocation that risked waging
war between Sudan and South Sudan.
As a result of the country's division, all South Sudanese
residents of the north were deprived of their Sudanese
citizenship. It also introduced a new currency, the new
Sudanese pound, and adopted a crisis budget to try to limit
the consequences of government revenue expected to decline
by at least 36% as a result of lost oil sources. The value
of the old pound had fallen sharply during the year due to
rising food prices and poorly managed government finances.
During the first months of the year, young people and
oppositionists tried to organize demonstrations against the
Khartoum regime on several occasions. Partially inspired by
the riots in Tunisia and Egypt, protests were spread to
protests via Facebook and Twitter, but every attempt to
demonstrate to a greater extent was resolutely defeated by
the regime's security forces.