Libya. At the start of the year, Libya was still the
hard-fought dictatorship of Colonel Muammar al-Khadaffi as
the country had been for over four decades - by the end of
the year, a coalition of rebel forces had seized power,
killed al-Khadaffi and began to try to build a democracy.
Inspired by the riots in Tunisia and Egypt, rebels in the
million city of Benghazi in eastern Libya took to arms on
February 15. al-Khadaffi's forces were heavily armed,
including attack helicopters, tanks and airplanes, while the
rebels were for the most part civilians who managed to get
over lighter weapons like the AK-47s. Within weeks, a
bloodbath in Benghazi threatened. At the urging of the Arab
League, the United Nations Security Council decided on March
17, through Resolution 1973, on an effort to protect
civilians through an arms embargo and a ban on Libyan
flights over the country.
On March 31, NATO took over the leadership of the
operation, but also a dozen countries outside NATO
participated, including Sweden. Through NATO support, the
rebels were able to keep Benghazi, occupying the country's
third largest city of Misrata in the west and surrounding
the capital Tripoli during the summer. The Battle of Tripoli
became very bloody and led to several mass murders. At Abu
Salim Hospital, more than 200 men, women and children were
also found dead, probably because the staff could not get
there because of the fighting. The rebels entered the city
on August 21.
Countryaah official site, the rebel's face during the revolution was the National
Transitional Council (NTC) based in eastern Libya. The
chairman was Mustafa Abdul Jalil, who had resigned in
February from his post as Justice Minister under
al-Khadaffi, and the acting prime minister was Mahmoud
Jibril, a US-trained technocrat.
The pursuit of al-Khadaffi and his immediate circle
became intense. On October 20, NATO flights attacked a
convoy trying to leave al-Khadaffi fortress Surt.
al-Khadaffi, his son Mutassim and a number of other men fled
but were arrested by rebels and killed under unclear
circumstances. Surt and another regime party, Bani Walid,
fell and NTC declared Libya liberated on October 23. The
only member of al-Khadaffi's family that was captured was
the favorite zone Saif al-Islam, which was called for by the
International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague and arrested
in southern Libya on November 19. Sons Saif al-Arab and
Khamis had been killed earlier during the revolution. Wife
Safia, sons Muhammad and Hannibal and daughter Aisha had
moved to Algeria and son Saadi was reported to have moved to
Data on the total number of casualties during the
Revolution varied widely between 2,000 and 30,000. Clearly,
many civilians were among the dead. The human rights
organization Amnesty International stated that al-Khadaffi
forces had killed, imprisoned and tortured both rebels and
civilians, but that the rebels were not innocent either.
Immigrants from southern parts of Africa were severely
affected. Many fled abroad and those who stayed were often
subjected to abuse, even from supporters of the rebels who
suspected them of being mercenaries in the al-Khadafi forces
or who used such suspicions as a pretext for racist acts.
NATO denied that its attacks had affected civilians, but
there were records of several civilian casualties, including
civilian casualties. for a NATO attack on Tripoli on June
19. NATO also denied participation in the revolution on the
part of the rebels, but it was obvious that without the
nearly 10,000 NATO attacks, the rebels would never have
defeated al-Khadafist forces.
The NATO mission ended October 31. During the fall,
schools opened, hospitals began to function, power cuts
became fewer and water supply became reliable again.
Consensus candidate Abdel Rahim al-Kib, electrical engineer
from Tripoli, was appointed Nov. 1 as newly appointed prime
minister. Over a hundred countries had then recognized NTC
as the country's government. But the Council had to deal
with strong tensions: between Islamists and secularists,
between former regimeists and oppositionists, between those
who stayed in Libya and those who lived in exile, and
between the country's eastern and western parts. The demands
of justice must be balanced against the need for
reconciliation. NTC's plan was to quickly appoint a body
that would write a new constitution. In 2012, elections for
a transitional parliament were planned, followed by
parliamentary elections in 2013.